GM 2.2L Engine Description And Operation

Engine Block

The engine block is mad of cast iron. The engine block has four cylinders arranged in line from front to back. The engine block is a one piece casting. The cylinders are surrounded by coolant jackets.

Cylinder Head

The cylinder head is cast aluminum made in a form casting process. This results in a casting requiring very little machining after production. The cylinder head has powdered metal valve guides and valve seats.


The crankshaft is cast nodular iron. Five crankshaft bearings support the crankshaft. These are called the main bearings. The bearings are retained by bearing caps. Number four crankshaft bearing also serves as the crankshaft thrust bearing. The bearing caps are machined with the block for proper alignment and clearances. The bearing caps are retained by two bolts each. Four connecting rod journals are spaced 90 degrees apart from each other. There is one connecting rod for each journal.

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Piston and Connecting Rod Assemblies

The pistons are cast aluminum. The pistons use two compression rings and one oil control ring. The piston is a low friction nd lightweight design with a flat top and barrel shaped skirts. The piston pins are made of chrome steel. They have a floating fit in the piston and are retained by a press fit connecting rod. The connecting rods are forged steel. The connecting rods are machined with the rod caps installed for proper clearances and fit.


The camshaft is steel. The camshaft is supported by five bearings pressed into the engine block. The camshaft is of an assembled design with each lobe, journal, and the oil pump drive gear assembled onto a hollow tube which is then expanded to hold the components in place. The camshaft timing chain sprocket mounted to the front of the camshaft is driven by the crankshaft sprocket thorough a camshaft timing chain.

Valve Train

The valve train uses cast steel rocker arms with roller bearings. Movement is transmitted from the camshaft through the hydraulic roller valve lifters and the tubular push rods to the valve rocker arms. The valve rocker arm pivots on a roller bearing in order to open the valve. The valve train is of the net-lash type without provision for manual adjustment. All valve train lash is taken up by hydraulic roller valve lifters.The valve springs are of a conical type which reduces valve train harmonics and noise. The valve seals are integral with the valve spring seats.

Intake Manifold and Fuel Rail

The intake manifold is constructed of a composite material incorporating metallic compression limiters at the mounting points for the throttle body, fuel rail, and the manifold to cylinder head flange. The fuel rail is of an assembled tubular design.

Exhaust Manifold

The exhaust manifold is made of cast iron.